the views of 'muhaqqeq' i.e. khawja naseer tusi too are the same. in his book 'tajreed' he says: 'the presence of imam is one grace and his domination is another and his absence is due to our sake. now that you have understood this matter, we say. we may mention the following as the reasons and philosophy behind the occultation of imam-e-zaman:
if a prophet or an imam is present among a nation and that nation does not rise for his obligatory rights or does not obey his commands and in short, the prophet's invitation leaves no impression on the nation and rather they exceed the limit and cause harm to their prophet, it is permissable for the prophet to abandon and isolate his nation so that in this manner he rectifies his nation. perhaps in this manner, the nation concerned would stop its rebellion and begin to adopt the path of guidance. perhaps they would seek benefit from the prophet existence and an imam too would act as a preacher, guide, leader and the one inviting the people. the divine saying: ---
stems from this very aspect.
when isolation and abandonment of invitation becomes the means for rectifying a nation then it is prudent to do the same even though people may be unaware of this matter. moreover it would be beneficial to them even though they may not possess understanding of the same. this isolation and abondonment of invitation does not possess any fixed limit and boundaries and in fact, one cannot say anything about their limit. rather its limit and duration depends on the nation turning back from its deviated path and becoming enlightened after heedlessness. it depends on the people's awareness of the benefits of the presence of the prophet or an imam.
history bears witness that ahl-e-bayt, revealation, messengership and aal-e-muhammad had to face too many calamities such as: hardship, suffering and non-revolt for the sake of the people instead of that right which Allah had set as the reward of his messengership. surely, they were always subjected to severe persecution and pressure such as being taken captive, imprisoned, hanged, expatriated, exiled and dispersed here and there.
Mahdi, the expected one is aware of all such matters and knows that he too would be subjected to such cruelties and oppression. rather, it would be much more sever, greater and bitter in nature because people are aware of hazrat's objectives and are aware that hazrat would give orders to rise with their arms. thus Mahdi has isolated himself from the nation because he knows that he would receive the same treatment as his father, fore-fathers, cousins, and relatives had received. besides, hazrat's objectives are nothing but to train the nation, make them aware, bring them back on the path of guidance and to seek his own just right. the author of elalush-sharaye has narrated a tradition from imam muhammad baqer (a.s.) as such: 'when Allah does not wish that we should remain amongst a group, he holds us back from them.'
anyone who wishes to rise for rectifying a nation in either worldly or religious matters should possess friends and companions and have a pact with some of the superior men so that they either remain his helpers or at least do not create any obstacles for him. the essential condition of this pact and agreement is this that he should stop interference and invitation (of the people) and be congenial with them (so) that he may have remained loyal to his pact until his affair and the time of pact and agreement come to an end and he deals with them in the same manner as he deals with others. this means that some of the commandments should not be implemented with respect to those who have concluded a pact with him and he deals with them contrary to the realities because of fear and dissimultation. thus Allah says: ---
... except the polytheist with whom you have a valid peace treaty and who have not broken it from their side or helped others against you. you (believers) must fulfil the terms of the peace treaty with them.
when Mahdi (a.s.) shall emerge, he is bound to invite (the people) through ordinary channels and his duty would be to judge according to the realities and not to fear anyone just as the same can be found in most of the traditions. this is because Mahdi's period is the period of emergence of truth, the most sparkling emergence and so, fear and dissimulation are inconsistent with this matter. this requires that he should not have allegiance of anyone upon his neck. indispensibly, he should be needless of any pact and agreement which would result in dissimulation. this would occur only when the ordinary channels for his assistance come to halt.
shaikh saduq in «kamaluddin» has directly narrated from hashim-ibn-salem who in turn has narrated from imam sadeq (a.s.) as such: 'the 'qaem' shall emerge without having allegiance of anyone on his back.